Shifu David Cox

  History of Northern 'Tibetan' White Crane

                                                           

                                                                 Site Map

        www.lionsroar.name

                                                      

History Of Northern Tibetan White Crane Kung-Fu by Shifu David Cox 2003: Published with his kind permission for the benefit and information of All Tibetan Pai Martial Artists.

Song Of Xizang Shizi Hou Pai

"Cut through steel and smash through iron and you are a genuine master of
our school. Even when the blows fall like rain, the center is calm and
still. If you understand this you travel like a dragon in water. If not,
looking down for a worm you miss the phoenix. Separate dragons from snakes
and jewels from rocks. Seeing one, understand three. In this way you stand
on the summit of the highest peak a master of the way. Able to penetrate
without obstruction the place where even a needle cannot enter."

The Origins of Kalaripayattu, Simhanada Vajramukti and Potala Sengwa Ngwa

 Nearly five thousand years ago along the river Nile in the fabled land
of Egypt, the martial art of Sebekkha was created. It was from this diverse
art of wrestling, stick fighting and boxing, that the Pancration arts of
Greece were created. By way of Aryans, traveling nomads, warlords, Olympians
and religious sects this art entered the land of India. In India, Pancratium
was incorporated with Yoga to create Vajramukti (Vajramushti - the Thunder
Bolt Fist), this occurred between 3,000 - 1,000 B.C. Parasurama was the son
of sage Jamadagni and Renuka. They resided in an Ashram that was serviced by
the cow of plenty, Kamadhenu. The Kshtriya King Kartavirya Arjuna Sostobaku
(Son of King Pandu.) went hunting in the forest and took shelter in the
Ashram of Jamadagni. The sage played host with the utmost cordiality to the
king and his retinue. In the Ashram of Jamadagni there was an abundance of
ghee, milk and other foods. The king was taken by surprise and asked
Jamadagni about the source of such abundant affluence. The sage told King
Arjuna of his cow Kamadhenu. The King took it upon himself to relieve the
sage of his cow and it's calf, claiming that since he was king he had the
rightful claim over all things in his domain. Upon hearing what had happened
Jamadagni's son Parasurama went forthwith to the kingdom of Kartavirya
Arjuna Sostobahu. With a bow and arrow and an axe in hand Parasurama
challenged the king to a duel. Although the king had an enormous army and an
inexhaustible arsenal, they were no match for Parasurama and his invincible
spirit. Soon Parasurama vanquished the great army and the exhausted king
fell. Parasurama cut off the kings thousand arms and chopped off his head.
He then returned the cow Kamadhenu and it's calf to his father Jamadagni.

    The sons of King Arjuna came to know of their father's death at the
hands of Parasurama and swore a vow of revenge. They waited until Parasurama
had left the forest before they entered and found Jamadagni seated before a
sacred fire offering his oblations. They cut off Jamadagni's head and took
it away on a spear, leaving the headless corpse behind. Parasurama heard the
cries of distress coming from his mother Renuka, and hurried back into the
forest. He found his grieving mother cradling the remains of his father
Jamadagni. Parasurama swore to rid the earth of the arrogant Kshatriya. With
axe in hand he set out and went from kingdom to kingdom killing every
Kshatriya he saw. All in all twenty one kings fell to the axe of Parasurama.
Having no desire to create an empire for himself, he gave the land to the
Brahmans (Hindu). When Rama (Prince of Ayodhya) had returned from Mithila
(After breaking the Siva Dhanush and marrying his beloved Sita.) Parasurama
challenged him to break his own bow. Rama easily broke the bow, and asked
Parasurama "What would you surrender, your life or your spiritual power?"
Parasurama bestowed his spiritual power unto Rama. Parasurama then threw his
axe southwards over Mahendragiri, the sea receded and the land of Kerala was
created.

    Parasurama is the 6th Avatar of Vishnu, whose was born to rid the world
of Kshatriyas of the Asuric mind. It was in India where the sage Parasurama
settled in the southern region, in an area called Kerala, built many grand
temples, and developed the art of Kalaripayattu (Temple Arts, brought back
from the Paramashiva "Eternal"), around 1,500 B.C..


    Kalaripayattu has two different styles, these are Thekkan and Vadakken.
Thekkan is the art that is practiced by Maharishi Agasthyamuni. Vadakken is
the Kuzhi Kalaripayattu practiced by Parasurama. Kalaripayattu is divided
into seven stages of training, these are:

1. Meipayattu or Maithari (Body)
2. Kolthari (Sticks)
3. Angathari (Metal Weapons)
4. Verumkai (Empty Hand/Without Weapons)
5. Chiktsavidhikal (Treatment)
6. Manthrathantra (Remembrance of God/Mantras)
7. Marmagnanam (Knowledge of Pressure Points)

The Birth of the Buddha

    Kalaripayattu was the art of the Brahmans. Vajramukti the art of the
Kshatriyas (Indian Royalty). The tribe from which the Buddha came was of
Aryan origin. These people were descendants from a group living in the
western region of ancient Siberia in approximately 2,500 B.C. The Aryan
tribes were nomadic and moved from the north of the black sea throughout
India, Iran, China, Greece, Italy, Germany, Eastern Europe, England,
Ireland, Russia and France. The Aryan Initially settled in the Punjab region
of India. Along with the Aryans came horses and iron, this gave them a
distinct advantage over the natives which they soon dominated. The Shakya
clan settled along the river Rohini that flowed among the southern foothills
of the Himalayas. Their king Suddhodana Gautama (Sacred Food) had tranferred
his capitol to Kapilavatthu (In modern Nepal.) and there had built a great
castle in the sixth century B.C. Suddhodana's queen's name was Maya
(Fantasy). She was the daughter of the king's uncle who was also a king of
the neighboring division of the same Shakya clan. For twenty years the
couple had no children, then, according to legend the queen, who was
observing religious vows, had a dream of a white elephant who encircled her
and entered her right side. Perplexed by this dream, the king and queen
summoned the Brahman wise men to interpret it's meaning. The wise men
predicted that a beautiful son would be born. The Brahman wise men further
analyzed the dream and predicted, "This prince, if he remains in the palace
after his youth, will become a great king to rule the four seas, but if
forsakes the household life to embrace the religious life, he will become a
Buddha and the world's savior." Though the king was pleased with the
prophecy, he later became troubled at the thought of his only son leaving
the palace to become a homeless recluse.

    When the child's birth was imminent, according to custom, the queen
prepared to return to the home of her parents in the neighboring kingdom. In
the early morning, the king sent soldiers to protect the queen, along with
courtiers and servents, she was carried in the royal palanquin in a long
procession to her ancestral home. Passing the magnificent Lumbini Grove,
with it's majestic trees and scented flowers, the queen decided to stroll
through the shady walks and rest awhile. All about her were beautiful Asoka
blossoms from a giant Sal tree, and as she reached out her right arm to
pluck a branch, she was suddenly in labor. As the queen stood and held a
branch the child was born. His birth was announced by celestial music and
other wondrous events. Celestial beings hailed the child, chanting, "Great
Being, you are Chief in all the world." The Golden Child came into this
world on the full moon day of May. He was given the name
Siddhattha/Siddhartha, meaning "All Wishes Fulfilled". His family name was
Gautama. Clansman of the Shakya people, and became known as Shakyamuni,
"Sage of the Shakya Clan". According to legend Siddhartha was born fully
grown, and upon birth took seven steps in four directions, and, pointing one
hand to the sky and one to the earth proclaimed "In the heavens and the
earth, only I am the venerable one". This was to become known as the Lion's
Roar.

    Once again the Brahman wise men predicted that two courses in life were
open to the baby prince. However, only one seer, Kodanna, stated that
Siddhartha would definitely leave the luxuries of palace life and become a
Buddha. Kodanna stated that, "A time will come when he will witness four
sights. He will see and old man, a sick man, a dead man, and a holy man who
has renounced the world." The idea of the prince forsaking his heritage
caused considerable concern for the king and other members of the royal
family. On the seventh day of his birth Siddhartha's mother died. He was
raised by his mother's sister, the lady Maha Prajapati, who later according
to custom married the king.  At the age of seven Siddhartha began his
lessons in literature and military arts. Siddhartha excelled as a student
and won prominence as a skilled athlete. However, Siddhartha had an
inquiring mind, and as such, his thought more naturally ran to things of a
contemplative nature. One spring day during the Ploughing Festival,
Siddhartha went out of the castle with his father. While watching a farmer
at his ploughing: he noticed a bird fly down to the ground and carry away a
worm which had been turned out of the ground by the farmers plough. Left
alone to rest under a tree, Siddhartha began to contemplate, and whispered
to himself: "Alas! Do all living creatures kill each other?" As the young
prince matured, his father became more and more concerned that his son would
abandon palace life. To distract and bind him to worldly life, the king had
extensive pleasure gardens built, surrounding him with every luxury and
delight imaginable. The king ordered that Siddhartha was never to lay eyes
on anyone seriously ill, very old, dying or on a wandering holy man. King
Suddhodana ordered that a high wall be built around the palace and pleasure
gardens, and guards were posted at the gate. At age 16 the king arranged the
marriage of the prince to princess Yasodhara, who was the daughter of
Suprabuddha, lord of Koliya and brother of the late queen Maya. For 13 years
the prince was immersed in rounds of music, dancing and pleasure, in the
different pavilions of spring, summer, autumn and winter, but as always his
thoughts reverted to the problems of suffering. During this time, while
still in his teen years, Siddhartha left the castle from the east gate, and
saw an old person struggling to walk. When he left the south gate he saw an
ill person. From the west gate he saw a dead person, and from the north a
wandering sage. Pensively Siddhartha tried to understand the true meaning of
life. "Luxuries of palace life, healthy bodies, rejoicing youth! What do
they mean to me?" "Someday we may be sick, we shall become aged, from death
we can not eventually escape. Pride of youth, pride of health, pride of
existence, all thoughtful people must cast them aside." "A man struggling
for existence will naturally look for help. There are two ways of looking
for help, a right way and a wrong way. To look the wrong way means that,
while he recognizes that sickness, old age and death are unavoidable, he
looks for help among the same class of empty, transitory things. To look the
right way means that he recognizes the true nature of sickness, old age and
death, and looks for life in that which transcends all human suffering. In
this palace life of pleasure I seem to be looking for help in the wrong
way." Siddhartha's mental conflict continued until his 29th year when his
only child, Rahula, was born.  The birth of his son had brought him to a
decision, and he decided to leave the palace to search for the solution to
his mental unrest. The plan was carried out at night, he left the castle
with only his personal servant, Channa, and his favorite horse, the
snow-white Kanthaka. Channa and Kanthaka were then left behind when
Siddhartha crossed the river at the edge of his father's kingdom. Many
doubts began to set upon Siddhartha. He thought that perhaps he should
return to the palace and seek another solution, then the entire world would
be his. Siddhartha resisted the temptation and doubts knowing that nothing
worldly could satisfy him. So he shaved his head, carried a begging bowl in
his hand, and turned his steps to the south.

    Siddhartha first visited Bhagava and watched his ascetic practices; he
then went successively to Arada Kalama and Udraka Ramaputra and learned
their methods of attainment, and after a brief period of time he became
convinced that they would not lead him to enlightenment. Finally he went
into the Magadha countryside and practiced asceticism in the forest of
Uruvilva on the banks of the Nairanjana river where it flows by the castle
of Gaya. Siddhartha's ascetic practice was extremely intense. He spurred
himself on with the thought that, "No ascetic in the past, none in the
present, and none in the future, ever have or ever will practice more
earnestly than I do." Even with such devotion he could not find what he
sought. After six years of ascetic practice in the forest Siddhartha gave up
and left his cave. He bathed in the river and accepted a bowl of food from
the hand of the maiden Sujata of a nearby village. The five companions, with
whom Siddhartha had shared a cave with for six years, looked on in
astonishment that he could accept food from the hand of a maiden, they now
thought him degraded and left him. Siddhartha was now alone. Still quite
feeble he attempted a final meditation at the risk of death, saying "Blood
may become exhausted, flesh may decay, bones may fall apart, but I will
never leave this place until I have found the way to enlightenment."  He
then sat himself down under a Bodhi tree and began. In a desperate struggle
to overcome confusing thoughts, lures of evil, temptations and sins dark
spirits weighed upon his soul. Carefully and patiently Siddhartha examined
each and rejected them all. It was a trying confrontation, but when the
morning star appeared in the eastern sky, it had all come to an end and
Siddhartha's mind was clear and bright. Upon his awakening he stated: "Long
have I wandered; Long bound by the chain of life. Through many births I have
sought in vain. The builder of this house (mind and body). Suffering is
birth again and again. O housemaker (craving), I now see you! You shall not
build this house again. Broken are your rafters, your roof beam destroyed.
My mind has attained the unconditioned, and reached the end of all craving."
  It was on December 8th, at 35 years of age that the prince became the
Buddha. It was from this time on that people spoke of him as Buddha
(Enlightened One) and Shakyamuni (Sage of the Shakya Clan).

    He first went to Mrigadava in Varanasi where the five mendicants who had
lived with him during the six years of ascetic life were now living. At
first they shunned him, but after talking to them, they believed in him and
became his first disciples. He then went to Rajagriha castle and won over
king Bimbisara who had always been his friend. After leaving Rajagriha,
Shakyamuni went about the countryside living on alms and persuading others
to accept his way of life. Two great teachers, Sariputra and Maudgalyayana,
and their two disciples came to him. Then Buddha's father, king Suddhodana,
became a disciple; and Maha Prajapati, Buddha's step-mother (aunt), and the
princess Yasodhara, his wife, and all the members of the Shakya clan along
with the multitudes, believed in him and became his devote and faithful
followers. For 45 years the Buddha went about preaching and persuading the
masses to follow his way of life. One day at Vaisali en route from Rajagriha
to Sravasti, Shakyamuni became ill and predicted that within three months
time he would enter nirvana. Shakyamuni journeyed until he reached Pava,
where he was made critically ill by food that was offered by a blacksmith
named Cunda. Shakyamuni eventually made his way to the forest on the border
of Kuninagara castle. Lying between two large sala trees, he continued
teaching his favorite disciples until he passed into the unknown. Shakyamuni
Siddhartha Guatama Buddha lived to be 80 years of age. Under the oversight
of Ananda, the Buddha's favorite disciple, the body was cremated in
Kusinagara castle.  Under the leadership of king Ajatasatru, seven of the
neighboring rulers demanded that the ashes be divided among them. The king
of Kunsinagara castle at first refused, nearly resulting in war, if not for
the advice of a wise man named Dona. Thus, the ashes were divided and buried
under eight great monuments. Even the embers of the fire and the earthen jar
that served as the urn were divided and given to two others to be likewise
honored.

The Four Noble Truths

1. Anguish is everywhere
2. The cause of anguish is the inability to accept harmony and impermanence.
3. There is an experience of freedom from anguish.
4. Such an experience is found with the practice of the eight-fold path.

The Eight-Fold Path

1. Right Views (Understanding): You must clearly see what is wrong.
2. Right Purpose (Aspiration): Decide to be cured.
3. Right Speech: Speak so as to aim at being cured.
4. Right Conduct: You must act.
5. Right Vocation: Your livelihood must not conflict with your therapy.
6. Right Effort: The therapy must continue forward at the critical velocity
that can be sustained.
7. Right Awareness (Mind Control): You must feel it and think about it
incessantly.
8. Right Concentration (Meditation): Learn how to contemplate with the deep
mind.

Ancestors in India

Shakyamuni Siddhartha Gautama Buddha

1.   Mahakashyapa
2.   Ananda
3.   Shanavasin
4.   Upagupta
5.   Dhitika
6.   Mishaka
7.   Vasumitra
8.   Buddhanandi
9.   Buddhamitra
10. Parshva
11. Punyayasha
12. Anabodhi
13. Kipimala
14. Nagarjuna
15. Kanadeva
16. Rahulabhadra
17. Samghanandi
18. Samghaythata
19. Kumaralata
20. Shayata
21. Vasubandhu
22. Manorata
23. Haklenayasha
24. Simhabodhi
25. Bashashita
26. Punyamitra
27. Prajnadhara
28. Bodhidharma

Ancestors in China

1.   Bodhidharma
2.   Hui-k'o
3.   Seng-ts'an
4.   Tao-hsin
6.   Hui-neng
7.   Ch'ing-yuan
8.   Shih-t'ou
9.   Yueh-shan
10. Yun-yen
11. Dong-shan
12. Yun-chu
13. Daopi
14. Tongan
15. Liang-shan
16. Dayang
17. Tousi
18. Daokai
19. Danxia
20. Wukong
21. Zhongjue
22. Zhijian
23. Rujing
24. Dogen
25. Ejo

The Origins of Xizang Shizi Hou Pai

    Shakyamuni being of royal descent (a prince) he was trained in the
Pancavidya (Five Arts of Kshatriya). His teachers included Arata, Kalama,
Rudrakarama and Kshantideva. Kshantideva taught Shakyamuni the arts of
grappling, boxing, gymnastics and weaponry. This area of Shakyamuni
Guatama's training is still evident in today's martial arts, it would
eventually evolve into what is known today as the Chinese New Year's Lion
Dance. Shakyamuni's Buddhism would eventually enter Tibet and develop into a
sect composed of Vajrayana and Mantrayana Buddhism. It was upon the order of
the Dalai Lama, that a superior martial art be created to expel evil from
the material world that would thus ultimately consume the spirit world and
it's doings. This sect ascended to a monastery near the top of mount Meru
(Mt. Kailash) to develop the art. Upon it's completion the head priest
Simhanada/Shi Tzu Wang (Lion's Roar/Lion King) climbed to the summit of the
mountain and proclaimed with the Lion's Roar (Seed Sound Om) that a superior
martial art had been created. It is said that with this cry, while one hand
pointing to the sky and the other to the earth, that the heavens turned
black, hell cracked open and the demons fled to the furthest corners of the
world. This new style became known as Simhanada Vajramukti (Lion's Roar
Thunder Bolt Fist). This would become the base of Atatuojin's art of Potala
Sengwa Ngwa (Lion's Roar of Potala Palace, in Tibet) the art of the Dub Dub
and Dorje Drollo.

    Atatuojin (Ordato, Ah Dat Ta, Dai Dot etc.) Was born in 1426 in Yue Shu
county, Qinghai Province China. He was born unto an ethnic Han Chinese
nomadic tribe that wandered around Russia, Mongolia, China and Tibet. One
day Atatuojin witnessed the murder of his parents by a band of barbarians
that wanted to steal their home. Atauojin was taken in by his uncle, but
having three sons of approximately the same age, it was decided that he
would be given up for adoption as he could not sustain another family
member. Atatuojin was sent to the "Thousand Petals of Gold Buddhist
Monastery". This particular branch of Buddhism was called the Vajrayana
sect, Atatuojin became a member of the Dub-Dub, Kagyu School. The Dub-Dub
were the warrior monks that were the protectors of the Dalai Lama, Panchen
Lamas, monasteries and their treasures. Growing up Atatuojin learned
horsemanship and various martial arts. These arts included Mongolian Boke
(Forerunner of Shuaijiao), Kum Nye (From the Nyingnapa, Ancient Ones of
Tibet, Forerunner of Qinna) and Kalaripayattu among others. Legend narrates
that at the age of 15 Atatuojin became a Lama and that even the oldest monks
of the monastery could not compete with him. This earned him the privilege
of being tutored by the Lama Gong Gut.
Gong Gut (a Dorje Drollo) was second only to the Dalai Lama. The art that
Atatuojin learned was Simhanada Vajramukti, also during this time Atatuojin
learned the martial art of Dinah (Wrestling) from a very skilled old man in
Tala. Wanting to further his understanding of Buddhism and refine his
martial technique, he set out on a 50 year pilgrimage into the mountains
towards Africa (There is another Mt. Meru in Africa that is held in high
esteem by the Sufi Muslims and their martial art of Baraqah).

    Atop this mountain plateau near a pond Atatuojin would contemplate the
lessons that he had learned at the monastery. One day his meditation was
interrupted by the shrill cry of a white crane, his focus lost he turned his
attention unto the crane. The crane had been wading in the pond when a great
white ape (Yeti) came out of the forest and attacked the bird. The ape
attempted to grab the crane's wings, the crane evaded it's attacker by side
stepping, flapping it's great wings, clawing with it's feet and pecking at
the ape with its beak. Atatuojin had expected the ape to tear apart the
fragile bird and felt compassion for it. However, the ape began showing
signs of fatigue and the crane, taking advantage of this, swiftly used it's
beak to pluck out the ape's eye. The ape let out loud cry of pain and
scurried off back into the forest from whence it had came. At this moment
Atatuojin became enlightened (Lion's Roar). One day Atatuojin was attacked
by a group of bandits and effortlessly defeated them. Realizing that he had
used the movements of the crane and ape he set about developing a new
martial art. This art was based on the powerful swinging, grabbing, stomping
and stepping movements of the yeti and soft, elusive, deceptive and cunning
techniques incorporated by the white crane. Upon it's completion he called
it Xizang Shizi Hou Pai (Tibetan Lion's Roar Style/ Potala Sengwa Ngwa).
This was to honor his base style of Simhanada Vajramukti and the enlightened
  Shakyamuni Guatama. Atatuojin created three methods (Forms) these are: Fei
He Shou (Flying Crane Hands), Mi Luo Fo Shou (Maitreya Buddha Hands) and Dou
Luo Shou (Gauze Wrapping Hands). The style was later renamed by Atatuojin's
successor Duoluojitan (Logutwun, Dor Lor Gut Tan, Dorawkitan) to Bei Xizang
Lama Bai He Pai (Northern Tibetan White Crane Sect).

    This new style was brought back to the "Thousand Petals of Gold Buddhist
Monastery", and taught to the Dub-Dub and Dorje Drollo of the Kagyu sect.
Atatuojin astonished all with his extraordinary exhibitions of force. It is
said that he could kill a white Himalayan tiger with his bare hands. Fight
alone against 100 men without receiving a blow, and while meditating under
an oak tree had the ability to camouflage himself with it. Thus was the
beginning of "Lion's Roar" and "Tibetan Taiji Quan". The Kagyu were known as
the Black Hats, the warfare and force sect. The Nyingmapa were known as the
Red Hats, the authority, physical strength and power sect. The Sakya were
known as the White Hats, the peace sect. The Gelugpa were known as the
yellow hats, the perfect virtue sect of the Dalai and Panchen lamas. These
four branches of Tibetan Buddhism and the Dub-Dub sect correlate with the
Five Dragons of Tibet (Da Wei, Da Yuan, Da Jue, Dai Zhi and Dai Hui). These
Are:

1. Snow Dragon - Preservation of Spiritual Traditions
2. Red Dragon - Warriors, Military Sect, Masters of Weapons and Killing.
3. Green Dragon - Teachers, Negotiators, Students of Astrology, Numerology
and Magic.
4. Blue Dragon - Medicine Sect, Acupuncture, Herbalist and Healing Arts.
5. Black Dragon - Stealth and Assassination Arts.

    The Vajrayana were known for growing flowers, it is said that there was
no intelligent life on earth until the seeds of flowers were carried here by
meteors and comets. The Kagyu is an oral tradition school that is very
secretive and passes on it's tradition from teacher to initiate through oral
transmission alone. The Potala Sengwa Ngwa, Simhanada Vajramukti and the
Nata of Vajramukti had within it a division called Pratipatti and Sikga
(Lion's Play, Art or Skill). This Division was passed into China by the 28th
generation Buddha Bodhidharama (Chan Na Buddhism Founder) in the form of the
Eki-Kinkyo (18 Arhat's/Luohan's) Shiba Luohan Shou (18 Hands of the
Luohan's). This contained the Yi Jin Jing (Muscle Change Classic) and Xi Sui
Jing (Bone Marrow Washing), two Vajramukti exercises of the Kshatriya's.
This occurred at the Henan Shaolin Temple of Songshan around 527A.D., and
thus became the basis of Shaolinsi Quanfa.


    Atatuojin's method was refined into six separate divisions/forms. These
are:

1. (Yi Xing Quan) Meteor/Comet Hands - Developed off of Potala Sengwa Ngwa
by Duoluojitan Lama for the Dub-Dub sect, as he thought that the (Fei He
Shou) Flying Crane Hands division was to complicated for initiates. It is
based on the movements of the Yeti (White Ape), and consists of four worlds
and four directions. North, Square World, the Overhand Strike. South,
Triangle World, the Straight Punch. East, Crescent World , the Uppercut
Strike. West, Round World, the Hooking Strike. Two position later added were
the backfist and claw.

2. (Luohan) Arhat - The last division to be added. Largely influenced by
Shaolinsi Quanfa, and based on the sixteen Tibetan Luohans and two Chinese
Luohans. This division contains the basic theories based on Simhanada
Vajramukti brought to China by Pu Ti Damo. This method was devised by
imitating the static postures of the Luohan statues of Shaolinsi, and led to
the development of Shiba Luohan Quan.

3. (Fei He Shou) Flying Crane Hands - This is the Adamantine Bodhisattva
(Diamond) and Jin Gang Luohan (Golden) Division. As well as the Five
Forms/Animals (Tiger, Leopard, Crane, Snake and Dragon) and Five Elements
(Metal, Water, Wood, Fire, Earth) Divisions.

4. (Miluofoshou/Budaishou) Maitreya Buddha Hands - An intermediate level
that teaches the five levels of Qinna.

5. (Mei Hua Quan) Plum Blossom Fist - Another intermediate level that was
added by Lama Jicbokowtow. This is the training where the individual "Opens
the petals (Jingluo) to release the perfume (Qi)". This was traditionally
done upon the Mei Hua Zhuang - Plum Blossom Stumps.

6. (Dou Luo Shou/Chan Hu Shou) Gauze/Silk Wrapping Hands - The advanced
level teaching the internal aspects of "Iron (Needle) Wrapped in Cotton".
Nei Qigong, Wai Qigong and Taiji Quan.

                               


-v