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   Simhanada Vajramukti

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    Mudra Signs & Seals

Essentially, Mudras are a non-verbal mode of communication and self-expression, consisting both of hand gestures and finger-postures. They are symbolic sign based finger patterns taking the place, but retaining the efficacy of, the spoken word, and are used to invoke in the mind, ideas symbolizing divine powers or the Tantric/Yiddam deities themselves. The composition of a mudra is based on certain movements of the fingers; in other words, they constitute a highly stylized form of gestureal communication. It is an external expression of 'inner resolve', suggesting that such non-verbal communications are more powerful than the spoken word.

Many such hand positions were used in the Buddhist sculpture and painting of India, Tibet, China, Korea and Japan. They indicate to the Buddhist in a simple way, the nature and function of the deities thus represented.

Mudras are thus gestures which symbolize divine manifestation. They are also used by monks in their spiritual exercises of ritual meditation and concentration, and are believed to generate forces that invoke the deity.

They are also of course, used by Senge Ngwa martial artists, and are to be found throughout the forms, but particularly at the beginning and end salutation sequences.

However, Mudra's are used not only to illustrate and emphasize the meaning of an esoteric ritual. It also gives significance to a sculptural image, a dance movement, meditative pose, i(and in our specific context: martial arts movement(s) - intensifying their potency.

In its highest form, it is held as a magical art of symbolic gestures, through which the Transcendent forces may operate in and thru the physical world.

Another meaning is often ascribed to the notion of Mudra. It reveals a transcendent secret imbibed in the five fingers. In this interpretation, each of the fingers, starting with the thumb, is identified with one of the five elements, namely the sky, wind, fire, water, and the earth.

Their contact with each other symbolizes the synthesis of these elements, which is significant because every physical 'form' in this universe is said to be composed of a specific combination of these elements.

This contact between the various elements creates conditions favorable for the presence of the deity at rites performed for securing some desired outcome or benefit.

i.e Mudras induce the deity to be near the practitioner.
While there are a large number of 'esoteric mudras', over time Buddhist art has retained only five for the representation of the Buddha himself. Images of the Buddha which exhibit Mudras other than these are therefore extremely rare. The significance of these Mudras can be gauged from the fact that each of the five transcendental (Dhyani) Buddhas is assigned one of these Mudras, and they are invariably depicted in visual arts with this particular Mudra only.

These five mudras are:

1. Dharmachakra Mudra

Gautam Buddha

Dharmachakra in Sanskrit means the 'Wheel of Dharma'. This Mudra symbolizes one of the most important moments in the life of Buddha, the occasion when he preached to his companions the first sermon after his Enlightenment in the Deer Park at Sarnath. It therefore denotes the setting into motion of the Wheel of the teaching of the Dharma.

In this mudra the thumb and index finger of both hands touch at their tips to form a circle. This circle represents the Wheel of Dharma, or in metaphysical terms, the union of method and wisdom.The three remaining fingers of the two hands remain extended. These fingers are themselves rich in symbolic significance: The three extended fingers of the right hand represent the three vehicles of the Buddha's teachings, namely:       

The middle finger represents the 'hearers' of the teachings
The ring finger represents the 'solitary realizers'        
The Little finger represents the Mahayana or 'Great Vehicle'. The three extended fingers of the left hand symbolize the Three Jewels of Buddhism, namely, the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

dharmacakra.gif (6254 bytes)

Significantly, in this Mudra, the hands are held in front of the heart, symbolizing that these teachings are straight from the Buddha's heart.

This Mudra is displayed by the first Dhyani Buddha Vairochana. Each of the five Dhyani Buddhas is associated with a specific human delusion, and it is believed that they help mortal beings in overcoming them. Thus, Vairochana is believed to transform the delusion of ignorance into the wisdom of reality. By displaying the Dharmachakra mudra, he thus helps adepts in bringing about this transition.

2. Bhumisparsha Mudra

Shakyamuni Buddha with Two DisciplesLiterally Bhumisparsha translates into 'touching the earth'. It is more commonly known as the 'earth witness' mudra. This Mudra, formed with all five fingers of the right hand extended to touch the ground, symbolizes the Buddha's enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree, when he summoned the earth goddess, Sthavara, to bear witness to his attainment of enlightenment. The right hand, placed upon the right knee in earth-pressing mudra, and complemented by the left hand-which is held flat in the lap in the Dhyana Mudra of Meditation, symbolizes the union of method and wisdom, samasara and nirvana, and also the realizations of the conventional and ultimate truths. It is in this posture that Shakyamuni overcame the obstructions of Mara while meditating on Truth.The second Dhyani Buddha Akshobhya is depicted in this Mudra. He is believed to transform the delusion of anger into mirror-like wisdom. It is this metamorphosis that the Bhumisparsha mudra helps in bringing about.

3. Varada Mudra

Crowned BuddhaThis Mudra symbolizes charity, compassion and boon-granting. It is the Mudra of the accomplishment of the wish to devote oneself to human salvation. It is nearly always made with the left hand, and can be made with the arm hanging naturally at the side of the body, the palm of the open hand facing forward, and the fingers extended.

The five extended fingers in this mudra symbolize the following five perfections:       

Generosity        
Morality        
Patience        
Effort        
Meditative concentration.

This Mudra is rarely used alone, but usually in combination with another made with the right hand, often the Abhaya Mudra (see below).

This combination of Abhaya and Varada mudras is called Segan Semui-in or Yogan Semui-in in Japan.

varada.gif (4945 bytes)

Ratnasambhava, the third Dhyani Buddha displays this Mudra. Under his spiritual guidance, the delusion of pride becomes the wisdom of sameness. The Varada mudra is the key to this transformation.

 

 

 

4. Dhyana Mudra

Meditating BuddhaThe Dhyana Mudra may be made with one or both hands. When made with a single hand the left one is placed in the lap, while the right may be engaged elsewhere. The left hand making the Dhyana Mudra in such cases symbolizes the female left-hand principle of wisdom. Ritual objects such as a text, or more commonly an alms bowl symbolizing renunciation, may be placed in the open palm of this left hand.

When made with both hands, the hands are generally held at the level of the stomach (Navel) or on the thighs. The right hand is placed above the left, with the palms facing upwards, and the fingers extended. In some cases the thumbs of the two hands may touch at the tips, thus forming a mystic triangle.

This triangle is said to represent the Three Jewels of Buddhism, mentioned above, namely the Buddha himself, the Good Law and the Sangha.

dhyana.gif (4468 bytes)

The Dhyana Mudra is the Mudra of Meditation, of concentration on the Good law, (Dharma) and of the attainment of spiritual perfection. According to tradition, this Mudra derives from the one assumed by the Buddha when meditating under the tree before his Enlightenment.

This gesture was also adopted since time immemorial, by yogis during their meditation and concentration exercises. It indicates the perfect balance of thought, rest of the senses, and tranquillity. This Mudra is displayed by the fourth Dhyani Buddha Amitabha, also known as Amitayus. By meditating on him, the delusion of attachment becomes the wisdom of discernment. The Dhyana Mudra helps us to achieve this transformation.

5. Abhaya Mudra

Gandhara BuddhaAbhaya in Sanskrit means fearlessness. Thus this Mudra symbolizes protection, peace, and the dispelling of fear. It is made with the right hand raised to shoulder height, the arm crooked, the palm of the hand facing outward, and the fingers upright and joined. The left hand hangs down at the side of the body. In Thailand, and especially in Laos, this mudra is associated with the movement of the walking Buddha (also called 'the Buddha placing his footprint'). It is nearly always used in images showing the Buddha upright, either immobile with the feet joined, or walking.

This Mudra, which initially appears to be a natural gesture, was probably used from prehistoric times as a sign of good intentions - the hand raised and unarmed proposes friendship, or at least peace; since antiquity, it was also a gesture asserting power, as with the Magna Manus of the Roman Emperors who legislated and gave peace at the same time.

Buddhist tradition has an interesting legend behind this mudra :D evadatta, a cousin of the Buddha, through jealousy caused a schism to be caused among the disciples of Buddha. As Devadatta's pride and inflation increased, he attempted to murder the Buddha. One of his schemes involved loosing a rampaging elephant into the Buddha's path. But as the elephant approached him, Buddha displayed the Abhaya Mudra, which immediately calmed the animal. Accordingly, it indicates not only the appeasement of the senses, but also the absence of fear.

In Gandhara art, this Mudra was sometimes used to indicate the action of preaching. This is also the case in China where it is very commonly found in images of the Buddha, mainly in the Wei and Sui eras (fourth to seventh centuries).

The Abhaya Mudra is displayed by the fifth Dhyani Buddha, Amoghasiddhi. He is also the Lord of Karma in the Buddhist pantheon. Amoghasiddhi helps in overcoming the delusion of jealousy. By meditating on him, the delusion of jealousy is transformed into the wisdom of accomplishment. This transformation is hence the primary function of the Abhaya Mudra.

However it is not just the Buddha who is credited with making Mudras. Every position assumed, and every gesture performed by our physical body is said to imprint its seal and send forth a continuous stream of vibrations that impress the atmosphere.

But to be really effective there must be a deliberate and intended arrangement of the body or parts of the body. Such an arrangement is the Yoga of Mudra - and intend, the 'Form' in martial arts.

It is interpreted as being able to bring the physiological system in harmony with transcendent forces and so create microcosm through which the macrocosm can be represented, channelled, and utilized.

The Mudra in all its variations is, therefore, a traditional body pattern; an archetypal posture of performed occult significance. We perform Mudras in every action, every moment of the day. Each action is a symbol of our underlying mental and physical condition and results because of the various energy patterns forming within our being. These patterns determine (in Buddhism) our personality, character mannerism and expressions. So, our every moment is an expression of our inner-nature. Consciously performing Mudras is held to allow us to become more aware of inner energy and to control it so that we make the most of each moment. The effect is holistic: at once subtle but powerful. In this way, we learn to integrate our dissipated thoughts and actions, so that life becomes a graceful flow of energy and understanding.

Our whole being can then become a Mudra, a gesture of life within, reflecting into our external life.

There are Mudra's that are used in medicine as well as meditation, which, we should expect in an integrated ethnic/cultural/spiritual discipline like Tibetan Buddhism.

Mudra's in Tibetan Lion's Roar Senge-Ngwa Martial Arts Forms:

In the Senge Ngwa Lion's Roar Sangha, the transmission of the art  is progressive, in that the Form, sequence etc of a 'Set' will change according to where the teacher feels that the student is, in relation to their understanding.

With the esoteric side of the art, this is very important, as some people have a great inner resistance or inertia to 'transcendent' aspects of training. This is respected and no one is under pressure to practice transcendentlaly/esoterically.

The first thing to remember is that the forms are practical hands, even the salutation sequence has applications, and that includes all (except one) of the Mudra's. This exclusion is applied to the first and last Mudra - the Dhyana Mudra (meditation Mudra) which, is both the beginning and end of the physical 'Yana' (vehicle) of the form as a Tantric practice.

It is the proper introduction to the form as the embodiment of Tantrism, and also the end point after which the art itself in physical form is to be transcended.

The L-R sets should, when the student is ready, ALL start and finish with this Mudra.

The second Mudra in Salutation, is the (in Han - "Tong-Ji-Bai-Faht") - the 'Child Salutation to/Worships The Buddha'. This recogniseable 'prayer' posture: Namaskara, is never seen in images of the Buddha himself, as, technically it is given from someone of inferior status to someone of superior status (in terms of their spiritual achievement).

anjali.gif (4802 bytes)

As it is at the beginning of the salutation (following the first meditative Mudra) it is appropriate, signifying the beginning of the journey and a recognition of self-humility.

This Mudra develops (matures) into the next aspect of salutation (in Han - "Lo-Han Bai-Faht") which symbolizes a Bodhisattva's salutation/worship of the Buddha and most importantly: The Bodhisattva's Vow.  Bodhisattva's in Buddhism are beings who are fully enlightened, yet who delay their transcendence from the world of Samsara in order to free all other sentient beings from illusion and ignorance. They are in effect 'Buddhist Saints'. This Mudra, shows the progression of the student, and, the choice of path, thru the vehicle (Yana) of the Lion's Roar Tantric Martial art.

The next Mudra is "Dharma-Chakra" - 'The Wheel of the Law/Wheel of Life, Teaching'. This is the return step and arm posture following the Bodhisattva salutation. The arms crossover the Heart Chakra of the performer, with the thumb and index finger of both hands touching - symbolizing the teachings of the Buddha and the "Three Jewels": Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. It comes from the heart (Chakra) to signify the teaching has come from the heart of the Buddha. In Han terms, it is a "Jin-Sau" or scissor hand action.

The Padmahasta Kinetic Mudra, closes the form and follows a return to the Namaskara (Child Prayer Mudra). It is a dymamic movement, that opens as a Lotus Jewel from the Heart (the highest Chakra), before returning back again to the Dhyana Meditation Mudra.

This last sequence - Padmahasta Kinetic Mudra, has a number of practical applications (of course) but it shows in the follwing Mudra - the return to Dhyana, that the cycle of the Wheel of Life continues until we (if we take the Bodhisattva Vow) have helped all sentient beings to achieve enlightenment.  See Link:  The Lotus Palms

There will be therefore, a final 'Form' after which if we truly follow the Bodhisattva path, all beings will have become enlightened and we can at last transcend this world ourselves.

As students develop their relationship to the transcendent, further Mudra's will reveal themselves both in form and applied function.

   Om Mane Padme Hum

-v