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Hyperventilation: trance states and suggestion
in the martial arts

Paper presentation to:

The Society of Martial Arts

1st International Conference and Graduation

Faculty of Sport and Exercise Science

Manchester Metropolitan University

11th July 1998

© 1998 Steven T. Richards FSMA


This paper examines the relationship between hyperventilation, defined as breathing in excess of metabolic (physiological) requirements, and the phenomena of ‘trance states’ and suggestion, in the practice of the martial arts.

It is proposed that martial arts instructors should become familiar with the fundamentals of scientific respiratory psychophysiology, and of hypnosis, in order to avoid potential harm to themselves and their students, through
inappropriate respiratory training, and an inability to use martial arts skills through encoding in: ‘State Dependent’ Memory, Learning and Behaviour (SDMLB).

An understanding of these phenomena, would allow the martial artist to employ safe respiratory training regimens; to improve performance; and ensure an appropriate ‘release’ of learned self-defence skills, in an emergency.

The oriental martial arts are well known for placing great emphasis on the cultivation of breathing, in the training of both mind, and body. Indeed, this is so familiar, that it has become tacit knowledge, even for the lay person.
‘Correct’ breathing, is associated with strength, general
health, and even ‘martial’ power.

Closely associated with these, is the concept of intrinsic energy, which is a modern westernised isomorphism for: Chi (China), Ki (Japan) and Pranja (India). So closely associated are they, that it is generally held as
impossible to further cultivate our natural, intrinsic energy, without training in advanced respiratory techniques.

This is all very familiar, to the Western practitioner of the oriental martial arts, but what is perhaps less familiar, is that there are, largely forgotten, but nevertheless real western traditions, that make the same connections between
breath and intrinsic energy. The most well known is probably the Greek concept of pneuma meaning ‘breath of life’ which was to find clearest expression in Stoic and Epicurean philosophy, as the fiery creative force, intrinsic to human kind. This idea, due to Greek and Hellenistic influences,
was also to surface within early Christianity (1).

Along with breathing, discrete states, and changes in consciousness, are commonly associated with the study and practice of martial arts. These may be passive, as in meditative contemplation, or, more dynamic as in the ‘moving Zen’ of traditional Karate Kata (2).

In the West, the study of consciousness has a long academic tradition. From the ancient Greeks, through Christian mysticism, philosophical Alchemy, renaissance
syncretism, enlightenment rationalism, the psychology of the unconscious, and latterly, the humanistic and transpersonal psychotherapies (3).

One Western discipline however, excels’ in its ability to explore
altered states of consciousness, that is: hypnosis.

The term ‘hypnosis’ (from the Greek god of sleep: hypnos) was coined in 1843 by the Manchester surgeon James Braid, who considered trance like states to be a kind of ‘nervous sleep’. Braid was very concerned with refuting the older ‘animal magnetism’ theories of trance, such as those of
Mesmer, and considered hypnosis to be a real physical state, affecting the nervous system: a ‘condition resulting from the mind being possessed by dominant ideas’. Braids’ theory was supported by the work of the Portuguese mesmerist; de-Faria, who proposed that the effects of trance were due to suggestion (4).

Over the intervening 150 years, much development and indeed, much controversy has surrounded the subjects of trance, hypnosis and suggestion. Some contemporary academics have built a reputation for denying that any
such discrete state as ‘hypnosis’, exists at all. Nevertheless, the clinical use of hypnosis, and the investigation of trance phenomena, still continues.

Clinically, the most successful modern use of hypnosis, has been in the field of psychophysiology that is: the scientific study of mind-body relationships.

Currently leading this field of research, are two Americans’: the psychologist

E. L. Rossi, and the obstetrician and gynecologist D. B. Cheek. They have applied Milton Erickson’s theory of naturalistic trance states to their work on the mind’s modulation of biological processes’, and, to the study
of so called: state dependent, memory, learning and behaviour (SDMLB) (5).

Naturally occurring trance states, include any focus of attention, such as watching television, driving, or daydreaming. Rossi & Cheek have found that individuals become more susceptible to suggestion, that is influence
when their sense of self awareness, becomes attenuated (lowered or loosened) during such activities. Further, that at regular times of the day, both mind and body go through phase shifts known as ultradian rhythms.

These phases last from about 90 to 120 minutes (one and a half to two hours)

in between which are characteristic ‘rest phases’ of around 10 to 20 minutes.

The ultradian rhythms themselves are regulated by a further system, that has a 24 hour period. This is the circadian rhythm. This area as a whole is known as: chronobiology, that is, the famous ‘body clocks’ of popular science.

By drawing these diverse elements together, Rossi & Cheek were able to demonstrate that there are definite psychological and physiological states, within which things may be learned, and later reproduced. Further, that
by manipulating the same state, it is possible to update prior learning efficiently. Naturally, it follows that some forms of learning are not efficiently reproduced, if the requisite state is not activated.

The particular form of learning in question, is then said to be: state dependent (sine qua non). The most familiar example from everyday life, is intoxication. Something learned, said, or done in that state may not be recalled at all, or only in part, when sober. However, get drunk again, and it all comes flooding back!

In psychophysiology, the natural ‘encoding’ systems for learning and memory, and, for the initiation or reproduction of behaviour, are: the nervous system, the endocrine (hormonal) system, and the immune system. Technically, these are known as: the psychoneuroendocrine
system, and the psychoneuroimmunological system. Beyond these, there is the possibility, that the acid-base (that is pH.) regulatory system of the body, is a vital encoder and releaser of SDMLB (6.)

This has particular importance for martial artists, and we will return to its consideration shortly.

Well then, what relevance do such trance states, suggestion, and indeed hyperventilation, have to do with the martial arts? As it turns out, rather a lot...

Martial arts training and practice, is a psychophysiological process, reliant upon many separate elements, being efficiently learned, remembered and acted out. Some of these components are obviously skills based, others are less openly manifest, and instead rely upon discrete mental states, such as ‘attitude’ and focus of attention.

Much of martial arts training, occurs in a variety of trance states, and involves ‘suggestion’ delivered by another person, usually an instructor or a teacher (this is hetero-suggestion), or perhaps originating within the practitioner themself (this is autosuggestion). The training may involve
rituals, the wearing of uniforms, and a dominanc hierarchy. A traditional ‘culture’ may be imparted to the practitioner, which if not indigenous to the practitioners culture, can be a powerful, alien, but ‘dominant idea’ in the manner described by James Braid. The ritualised imitation of animals, and
the invocation of spirits ( such as the: Sun-Gung and Sun-Dar, found in some Chinese systems) clearly involves trance states and suggestion.

However, this clarity should not paradoxically, obscure the role of trance and suggestion in apparently ‘modern’, westernised interpretations of martial arts practice. The ‘pragmatic’, practical approach to martial arts training,
offered by some contemporary Western martial artists, appears, at least on the surface, to be free of traditional ritual, and even of uniforms, ranking, or ‘style’. Nevertheless, rituals, and more subtle rankings
and distinctions of dress, are to be found, as are the naturalistic trance states, and state dependent memory learning and behaviour, found in all martial arts systems.

However, some martial artists (Geoff Thompson for example) seem to have a keen, and developed conscious awareness of SDMLB, even if by another name, and endeavor to introduce training methods that limit state
dependency. A familiar example of state dependent learning, for all martial artists, is the black belt who can’t land a punch when he is attacked for real, because, he’s always trained in a state of non-contact. His skill is locked in, and can’t be accessed, in the new and threatening state, of a real fight.

But, what of hyperventilation, aren’t martial artists expert breathers?

At school, most people are taught that carbon dioxide, is just a waste gas, a by-product of respiration, and therefore of no value to the body. This, is False. It turns out that C02 (carbon dioxide) is essential for maintaining a healthy mental and physical state (7).

When in solution, inside the bodies fluids such: as blood, cerebro-spinal fluid, and the internal fluid medium within nerve cells, C02 is an acid. This acid, helps to balance the alkalines within the body, and thus maintain a normal pH. (percentage hydrogen) value. The bodies first line of
maintenance of pH. is through regulation of breathing; if it is too acidic then C02 is ‘blown-off’ through an increase in respiration, if too alkaline, then respiration is reduced. Specialised nerve cells in the brains ‘respiratory centre’ continually monitor the acid-base level of the body, and adjust respiratory rate and depth accordingly. All of this is automatic and outside of conscious awareness.

Humans can and do, modify their breathing for various tasks, and for the most part this is achieved successfully, with no adverse affects on the acid-base (alkaline) balance of the body. However, in the martial arts, there are many training, and other ‘ritualised’ breathing regimens, that have the potential to seriously compromise acid-base regulation. For example, the harsh and forced hyperventilative breathing of Okinawan Karate’s Sanchin kata, and the sunken chest posture, with associated restricted respiration, found in some southern Chinese systems. Yet, these systems and others, can and do promote health, in most cases.

So, just what is hyperventilation, and what are its effects?

Hyperventilation, or ‘overbreathing’, can be simply defined as: breathing in excess of the bodies physiological needs. Physiology is here emphasised, because it is through psychology, that individuals have the potential to
consciously, and purposefully modify their breathing, beyond their metabolic requirements.

To the lay person, hyperventilation is associated with ‘panting’ and is connected in some way with ‘panic attacks’, so in the clinical setting, it often comes as a surprise to patients to find that their apparently unobtrusive,
and habitual patterns of breathing are hyperventilative, and, responsible for a wide range of physiological and psychological disorders. The physiology of respiration is complex, and is beyond the scope of this current paper.

The essential things are: to appreciate that there is more to hyperventilation than rate of breathing, it also involves the depth of respiration and the tidal volume, and crucially for our purposes, the effects of loss of C02 through expiration (breathing out).

The immediate effects of C02 loss through hyperventilation occur centrally, in the brain. The loss of C02 from the lungs, blood and extra-cellular fluid, means that carbon dioxide molecules flow out from nerve cells in the brain,
and down their concentration gradient, until an equilibrium point is reached. This loss of acid from the brain, automatically leaves it in an alkaline state. Various perceptual, intellectual (cognitive) and emotional (affect) changes follow. Initially, there may be a quickening of reactions, as in ’psyching oneself up’ by rapid breathing, and, an increase in pain threshold (witness for example the testing during a performance of ‘Sanchin Kata’ and the 'Iron-Shirt' training of some Kung-Fu systems). However, depending on the initial condition of the person, dizziness, palpitations,
panic states, hallucinations and even unconsciousness can routinely follow.

Even schizophrenic symptoms, and, as a result, a psychiatric diagnosis of psychosis have been reported, due purely to over-breathing, and C02 dis-regulation ( 8).

The ‘state’ produced by an acute period of hyperventilation, is known as:respiratory alkalosis. This ‘state’, can dangerously predispose, the bodies smooth muscular tubes (arteries, lining of the lungs etc.) to spasm, increasing
blood pressure, restricting breathing by an ‘asthma’ type attack, and by coronary artery spasm, increasing the likelihood of a heart attack. The nerves that control heart rate can become hyper-stimulated, perhaps leading
to sudden death through a fatal cardiac arrhythmia (9).

Of course, all of this depends on the initial conditions present in the person concerned, but my own clinical research in the National health Service (10). supports that of other workers, in suggesting that any regimen of breathing training can be dangerous, if, the physiology of the individual isn’t up to it,
temporarily or otherwise.

It is not just the hasher styles of breathing in the martial arts that can be potentially dangerous to health, again it all depends on the initial conditions.

Quite a disproportionately large number of my own patients, have been Yoga teachers, people who believed that they knew how to breathe properly!

Many factors contribute to the outcome of a given period of hyperventilation, including general health, age and inheritance. Two factors are of particular interest here, these are chronicity, and suggestion.

Chronicity refers to the duration of the over-breathing. It is quite possible for a person to be ‘trained’ to overbreathe, so that their tolerance of respiratory alkalosis is increased, and again I would refer you to Sanchin Kata, as a prime example. Negatively however, chronicity can refer to an habitual state of hyperventilation, with depletion of the bodies natural buffering systems against alkalosis, and, the re-setting of the brains respiratory centre, in the manner of a thermostat, so that the individual is compelled to over-breathe. Typically, persons suffering in this way have a chronic
background exhaustion and inability to concentrate, they may lack confidence and feel nervous, just the kind of person who may seek training in a martial arts school. For such people, breathing training, even of the ‘internal’ Tai-Chi-Chuan’ variety, can be dangerous. If they attempt to
slow down and deepen their breathing, their respiratory centre reacts with an acute hyperventilative attack, to return the respiratory rate to its now abnormal physiological setting. The results can be just as dangerous, as in
the harsher breathing systems, and no amount of talk about Chi or Ki can alter these physiological facts.

What of suggestion?

We have seen how trance states naturally occur in everyday life, and that they are also typical of martial arts training regimens. When paired with breathing techniques, these trance states become powerful vehicles for delivering suggestion, both hetero and auto. Hyperventilation has been
incorporated into many esoteric practices, and is used by cults to create a receptive and compliant state, within which to receive indoctrination. This is far from implying that martial arts training is a form of cult, just that there is some common ground with respect to the utilisation of trance and breathing techniques.

What martial artists, and instructors and teachers in particular, should understand, is how hyperventilation, trance states and suggestion, can leave them vulnerable, both physically and psychologically, to ill-health and delusional beliefs about their skill and abilities. On the positive side,
many people enter martial arts training, precisely to enter trance like states, to wear a uniform that signifies belonging to a group, or to be inducted into a 'traditional' culture.
All of this has its own merit, but, it may not extend to good health, or to workable self-defence.

Instructors should become familiar with the basics of state dependent learning theory, and acquire the necessary techniques from modern, western science, specifically: respiratory psychophysiology, in order to be able to assess
their students metabolic and psychological fitness to undergo respiratory training. Precise measurements require infa-red mass spectrometry, beyond the means of most teachers, but a little research into the relevant literature,
will allow good ‘lay’ assessment to be practiced.

Non-state bound learning requires an understanding of trance states, and the role of suggestion, that is: influence. Trance states open a window for suggestion that is much more efficient than at any other time. Systems of
training that involve: ritual, uniforms, breathing regimens, dominance hierarchies and group-identification, are hypnotic for all participants, whether, instructors, or students. The power of such systems to create SDMLB extends to individuals even when they are away from direct, outside influence. Martial artists’ have to enter the ‘right frame of mind’ in order to train, particularly when alone, and, this defines a naturalistic trance state.

Psychotherapists’ with training in psycho-biological hypnosis, understand only too well how important it is to enable patients to productively change their attitudes, beliefs and behaviours, in order to successfully adapt to the demands of everyday life. Martial artists’ tacitly claim to be prepared
for the extra-ordinary demands that a violent assault may place upon them. Yet sadly too often, their skills are locked into an unrealistic and inaccessible ‘state’ of dependent memory, learning and behaviour.

Martial artists need to update traditional oriental knowledge, with contributions from modern occidental science. The mixture of cultures is inevitable, and so is therefore best addressed consciously, and with positive purpose. The syncretism of east and west need not be based upon a
confrontation between opposites, doomed to cancel one-another out.

The solution to that problem lies in a translation between the surface structure differences between east and west, based upon a hidden, deeper structure similarity of view. For example, the famous Dim-Mak (delayed death and
time of day striking discipline) of Chinese martial arts, can be translated into the western scientific discipline of chronobiology, where it seems, there are times of day when people become more vulnerable to certain kinds of attack, as well as to illness, and to negative psychological suggestion.
Only where no direct isomorphic that is: one to one translation between the cultures in question, is present, should the martial artist decide in favour of one explanation over the other. Then, it should be a decision based upon
rational grounds, rather than the inertia of an hypnotic, trance state, belief.

If these criteria are carried over into training, then, it will be possible to enjoy the positive affects of immersion into a martial arts culture, with the safety valve of a rational, correcting feedback system, guarding against SDMLB. Of course, this applies just as much to ‘Western’ martial arts
developments, as it does to the oriental systems.

Any system that involves human memory, learning and behaviour, can fall victim to state-dependency. Understanding and utilising trance and suggestion, consciously and intelligently, can make for improved efficiency
and results in training, and, protect against unwarranted influences from whatever source.

In conclusion, martial artist teachers need to be aware of the effects of hyperventilation, trance states and suggestion, particularly on SDMLB, but also on the physical and mental health of their students. They would be well advised to educate themselves at least in the fundamentals, of
respiratory psychophysiology, and of hypnosis.

© 1998 Steven T. Richards FSMA MIPSA BRCP (Psych).

Consultant psychotherapist & psychophysiologist to the NHS and in private practice.

Consultant to the British Council of Complementary Medicine
(Psychotherapy Division)

Fellow of the Society of Martial Arts (FSMA)

Recognised instructor: British Council for Chinese Martial Arts (Sports Council governing body). (BCCMA)

Life Member: Chin Woo Athletic Association of Hong-Kong.

Biographee: Who’s Who in America (World, Science and Medicine editions)


(1). Flew 1979) A dictionary of philosophy. Anthony Flew, Pan Books London 1979 p 278.

(2). (Nicol 1975) Moving zen: karate as a way to gentleness. C. W. Nicol Published by The Bodley Head, London, Sydney, Toronto p 45.

(3). (Tarnas 1991) The passion of the western mind, Richard Tarnas Pimlico London 1991 p 443.

(4). (Cavendish 1974) Encyclopedia of the unexplained: magic occultism and parapsychology. Richard Cavendish (ed.) Routledge and Kegan Paul, London and Henley 1974 pp 114-121.

(5). (Rossi and Cheek 1989) Mind-body therapy: methods of ideodynamic healing in hypnosis. E. L. Rossi and D. B. Cheek. Norton New York

(6). (Richards 1995) An outline of psycho-systems analysis psychotherapy and dialectical syncretic philosophy: Steven T. Richards (unpublished) thesis submission to the Institute for Complementary Medicine (London U.K.)

(7). (Lum 197 8 Respiratory alkalosis and hypocarbia: the role of carbon dioxide in the body economy. L. C. Lum. The Chest Heart and Stroke Journal, Volume 3. Number 4. Winter 1978/79 pp 31-44.

( 8. (Allen and Agus 196 8 Hyperventilation leading to hallucinations:Thomas E. Allen, Bertrand Agus, American Journal of Psychiatry. 125: 5, November 1968 pp 84-89.

(9). Kaplan 198 8 Death without pain, disease without pathology: silent ischaemia, hyperventilation syndrome. Norman Kaplan editorial for Cardiology guide, Core Series Journal Division of Excerpta Medica
Pub. Melissa Warner (USA) June 1988 pp 5-7.

(10). (Richards and Richards 1993) Counselling and capnography: an integrated psycho-systems approach in general medical practice.

Richards P. A. and Richards S. T. paper presentation to the
XIIth International Symposium on Respiratory Psychophysiology, London: September 1993, Abstract published in; Breathing: newsletter of the International Society for Respiratory Psychophysiology (2) Summer 1995 p 21.

From Post-Modernism to Dialectical Syncretism:
understanding the anthropology
and cultural evolution of
martial arts systems

Paper presentation to:

The Society of Martial Arts

1st International Conference and Graduation

Faculty of Sport and Exercise Science

Manchester Metropolitan University

11th July 1998

© 1998 Steven T. Richards FSMA


This paper proposes that an understanding of the evolutionary development of the martial arts, including their current state and future trends, can be achieved by placing the arts into their broader cultural perspective, and, by applying the practical methodology of dialectical syncretism. Further, that dialectical syncretism may be employed to lay the foundations of a new discipline of martial arts

The impact of post-modernity on martial arts eclecticism, including Jeet-Kune-Do, is discussed here for the first time, facilitating a trans-temporal, and trans-cultural, perspective for students of contemporary martial arts history.

This paper affirms the possibility of understanding the evolutionary cultural dynamics of the martial arts, and offers a methodological way forward, free of both inhibiting traditionalism, and, post-modern negation.

By syncretising older and mutually exclusive disciplines,
dialectical syncretism facilitates the creation of a new anthropology of the martial arts.


The martial arts are many things, but perhaps most fundamentally, they are cultural systems, that can be understood as products of human endeavour, continually evolving over historical time periods.

But how are we to make sense of this evolving process, is it possible to explain the current state of martial arts development, and, is there a method that might allow some predictions to be made about future directions?

It is my purpose to propose affirmative answers to these questions, by placing the evolving culture of the martial arts, into the larger philosophical perspective, of human creative ideation.

Many martial artists consider themselves as active agents, rather than as passive thinkers, but in essence both are necessary for martial arts study.

We are all born into culture’ and each culture has its own history, and cycles of creativity and change. In the late twentieth century, the Western world has witnessed a burgeoning of interest in the oriental martial arts, as well as other products’ of eastern culture, such as
religion and alternative medicine. Indeed in the fuller traditions, all three often come as a complete ‘package’.

Understanding these cultures, in their originating context, that is in their indigenous environment, is a task for anthropology. Anthropological studies of the martial arts are rare, but perhaps one of the best was written by the late Donn. F. Draeger, this was Weapons and fighting arts
of the Indonesian archipelago (1).

I read this book, just after publication, and it had a profound influence on my way of thinking, not just in the martial arts, (in fact that influence came later) but more
directly by introducing me to the importance of syncretism in
understanding how cultures, and systems of ideas, and creativity interact constructively.

Syncretism, is a word found in most English language dictionaries, but it is often misrepresented as: ‘ blending of inharmonious systems’, and contrasted negatively, with eclecticism as the principle, and practice of taking the ‘best’ from a wide variety of beliefs and systems. No source,
educated in the history of comparative religion, or of philosophy, would make such an error. Far from being a blending of inharmonious elements, syncretism, is a natural process dynamic, found at the heart of all great cultural developments.

The literal meaning of the term is: ‘an alliance of the Cretan towns’ (Collins English Dictionary), implying an unexpected coming together of elements, perhaps for a common purpose.
One of the clearest examples of religious syncretism, at least in the Western tradition, is the adoption by the Roman empire, of the Greek belief that all cultures and civilisations worship the same gods’, ust by different names (2).

In practice, this allowed for a flowering of religious and philosophical tolerance, as a continuation of the Hellenistic, and Alexandrian traditions.

Syncretism is more than just a philosophy of equivalence, it also encourages penetration to deeper levels of analysis, so that it is possible to incorporate beliefs and practices that are complementary, to one another rather than simply isomorphic (that is: the same thing, albeit superficially dissimilar). The tendency of syncretism then, is towards holism.

Draegger, was well aware of the syncretistic process at work in the Indonesian martial arts, with their fusion of indigenous systems, with those originating in China, Okinawa and Japan. This reflected the historical, cultural and ethnic admixture of the archipelago, continuously and systematically developing, as a living human system.

Of course, it is not only in Indonesia, that martial arts syncretism has, and indeed still does, occur. The process itself, is invariable throughout all martial arts cultures; ancient and modern, eastern and western.

So, is martial art syncretism a complete, self-generating process, or, is it but one stage of a larger and more complex cycle?

To answer this, we need to look at comparable cultural processes’, model their evolutionary dynamics, and then apply them back once again, to the martial arts. As an example, I will introduce one field, within which, I
have been privileged to have made a contribution (3) & (4).

In my professional field as a psychotherapist, I have been involved in modelling the process of growth, decay and reconstitution, of the ideas, beliefs and practices. That have formed the major schools of psychology and of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy and its near relative: psychology, have in their modern guises’ a very short history, certainly no longer than one hundred and fifty years. Yet, they did not arise out of nothing, there were older, cultural traditions, the most prominent being religion
and philosophy: the two archetypal systems of making ‘sense’ of the world, and of human life. Even the so-called ‘hard sciences’, have their origin in these two fundamental products of human culture.Late twentieth century psychotherapy, is in something of a mess. Each
individual and well established school believes that it has the exclusive truth about human nature. Rival schools, are at best, considered to represent mere partial truths, they’e gone wrong somewhere, and as a result, just haven’t got it quite right.

The less well established schools? Well, they’re just radicals or upstarts, getting beyond themselves, just trying to break-down all that has gone before, and, worst of all, they’re eclectic. (all of this should sound quite familiar to martial artists!).

In studying the field as a whole, it seemed to me, that most of the creative thinkers in psychotherapy, were more concerned with the in-house dynamics of putting one-another down, rather than trying to understand the meta-dynamics that were driving the system, as a whole. There seemed to be something compelling about arguing in this reductive,
and apparently non-productive way. Furthermore, looking around at other examples of human, cultural systems, this same apparently destructive tendency, manifested itself time and time again. I began to speculate that as the tendency was so widespread, indeed universal, then perhaps it was not just an inevitably negative aspect of human nature,
but, that it might in fact be part of a larger creative dynamic.

Looking again at the academic psychotherapists’, I could see that most of their more informed debate, revolved around the issue of eclecticism versus something known as integrationism. Eclecticism, had started to
become popular in the 1950’s, but had acquired a reputation for sloppiness, and of being an excuse for being unskilled, and lacking in real knowledge. It had arisen because the older established schools, had lost much of their credibility, by claiming that they alone had all the answers. Quite understandably, the newer generations of therapists’
reasoned that none of the first generation, established schools, could possibly have all the exclusive answers to human nature, so, it seemed logical to mix and match on the basis of ‘what worked best’.

This went on quite well until the 1980’s when out of embarrassment, some academic psychotherapists’ felt that eclecticism was too woolly and unsystematic, and as a result a new tendency, that of ‘integrating’ two or more schools together, arose. Some integrationists’ sought to attempt
a ‘grand unification’ of all psychotherapies, others, more modestly, worked on the problems of systematic integration, between any given two or more, schools of thought. By the mid 1990’s the process had developed no further.

What was obviously lacking from all such published debate amongst the psychotherapy profession, was an appropriate sense of history, and of

context. It was as if they had arisen, as a discipline, out of nothing, one hundred and fifty years ago. In that sense, the debate was rootless, and de-contextualised. I thought it reasonable to ask, ‘had this happened before, in religion and in philosophy, in other words in the cultural and historical precursors to psychotherapy?’ (5) & (6).

The answer is yes, and not only once, but continuously! It seems that there is a cyclical process, that follows a definite, ordered pattern, that occurs wherever and whenever, ordered systems of human culture arise and evolve. This meant that what had happened, and indeed what will happen, in the development of psychotherapy, could be understood, and with some confidence, predicted.

I gave the name ideational cycle this evolutionary dynamic, essentially referring to the development of philosophical and religious ideas, but, equally applicable to any cultural system.

Looking at the cycle, there were four major stages: monist eclectic integrationist (syncretistic) and monist, once again.

Monist: meaning ‘single and whole’ refers to any kind of cultural system, that claims exclusivity and predominance. This can therefore be a religion or philosophy, or even a martial art.

Monist systems tend to dominate their host culture, until they begin to break-down, either because of internal inconsistencies, that dissolvethem from within, or because of contradictions with other, external monistic systems. In practice both forces can be at work simultaneously
to break-up the dominant system.

The order, represented by a monism disappears with its dissolution, and,is followed by a chaotic phase, characterised by eclecticism.

Eclectic: the eclectic phase actually begins during the end of the monistic cycle, providing some of the momentum necessary for dissolution.

Eclecticism, then is reductive, in that its earlier phase, breaks down pre-existing monism’s, but it eventually becomes constructive when its own limitations generate the next phase, that of integrationism.

Integrationist: the integrative phase, is familiar to scholars of comparative religion and of philosophy, wherein it is known as syncretism. This can be mistaken, for a blending of inharmoniuos elements, but in fact it always results in a new and workable system. Over time, as the integrationist or syncretistic phase becomes established, a new, and stable, monistic system evolves.

(neo/new) Monist: This phase, arises when the integrationist/syncretistic stage has been established long-enough, for the separate elements to appear to be one whole system, almost as if they always had been a unified monism, rather than a synthesis of previously separated parts.

The cycle then continues just as before, with the new monism eventually succumbing to inconsistency and contradiction, until it reduces into eclecticism and so on.

These four stages describe the Macro or large scale dynamics of the cycle. However, in practice all four stages will co-exist within one overall cultural system. The micro or small scale dynamics, reveal the fine details of the process, in any given example, such as the martial arts.

The order of the cycle is always the same, although some elements of previous stages may persist into the next, eventually they change in the direction of the cycle as a whole.

For example, in psychotherapy, some monisms’ have and will continue to persist, into the eclectic and the integrative stages, but when change occurs, it invariably changes in the direction indicated.

With the knowledge gained from observing the dynamics of the cycle, it was possible to obtain a clear perspective on the current state of psychotherapy theory and practice, and to predict that out of the current debate, eclecticism will weaken and lose ground, integrationism will become the dominant paradigm, and will itself eventually give rise to new
psychotherapy monisms’.

But what of the martial arts, does all or indeed any of this apply?

Well, if we do as we did with psychotherapy, and look at the state of the discipline as a whole, we find a situation not very dissimilar.

There are systems whose protagonists’ claim them to be superior to all others, and in effect are claiming to represent the ‘ultimate martial art’.This is a form of monism. Others, are not happy with this claim, which is typical of some ‘traditional’ and therefore ‘established’ schools; and prefer instead to create an ‘open system’ based on the eclectic principles of taking or using whatever works best. Some are not happy with this, and say that eclectics are typically people who have failed to make the grade in an established style, and just make up their own in compensation. Some of these critics prefer to combine two or more systems that appear to be not only useful in themselves, but if combined, may actually complement one-another, to make a more effective system. A fairly
well known example is the combination of Muay Thai, and Brazilian Ju-Jitsu. This represents an integrative system.

If we continue to develop the comparison between therapy and the martial arts, we need to look both at how the arts have developed, in a broadly historical sense, and, the larger cultural environment, within which they now flourish.

Historically, the oriental martial arts, have reflected the broader cultures within which they have arisen. Where there has been cross-cultural fertilisation, then generally, so has there been a cross-fertilisation of martial arts. This cross-fertilisation has followed the syncretistic
pattern identified by Draeger, perhaps most clearly in Indonesia, but also in China, with influences from Indian Kalari, travelling with Buddhism directly to the Shaolin monastery, and later via Tibet into the Lama’ systems, that settled into western and southern China.

The influence of Chinese martial arts on those of Okinawa and Japan is well accepted, as is the possibility of ancient Greek influence on the martial arts of India, through the invasions of Alexander the Great (7).

This circle is now complete, with the reciprocal influence of the east upon the west, in the late twentieth century.

As well as ‘between’ cultures, the syncretistic process also operates ‘within’ cultures. If for example, you take the accepted history of any well known Chinese system, you will find that the ‘new’ style is generally based on a synthesis (that is syncretism) of elements that went before.

Of course, the new style is not just an admixture of two or more styles that have gone before, rather it is a systematic and rational process, where not only are some things added, but some things are also deleted.

This latter point, will become particularly important later on.

The Chinese example is interesting, in that although it is possible to demonstrate monistic styles, and later syncretistic developments, the eclectic phase, so typical of our times, is absent. I think that there are two reasons for this. Firstly, true eclecticism is un-systematic and,
therefore, tends to leave no real or lasting trace of itself, and secondly, the eclectic phase will eventually resolve into an integrationist stage, which in turn, will evolve into a new monism.

The two strands of evidence we have for this are: the cultural narratives, concerning the origin and development of styles, and the manifest absence of a ‘traditional’ eclecticism. As soon as eclecticism becomes organised,
it becomes a tradition, perhaps a syncretism, but eventually, a monism.

What about the larger, contemporary cultural perspective. How does all of this fit in, at the turn of the millennium?

Its often said that we live in a ‘post-modern age’ but what does that mean?

Originally, the term ‘post-modernism’ or post-modernatity, referred to a movement amongst creative-artists, and art critics, in the 1960’s. However, it was soon adopted by thinkers and philosophers, and by the 1970’s came to stand for a wide range of beliefs and practices.

Essentially, it stands for a rejection of all systems, beliefs and practices, that emphasise structure, certainty, and rationalism ( 8).

Perhaps the most well known of post-modern thinkers, is the French- Canadian philosopher: Jean Francois Lyotard. His particular brand of post-modernity is of interest, because of its clear emphasis on the rejection of Grand Narrative explanations (9).

In other words, there are no universally valid theories or systems, all should be rejected. Eclecticism is emphasised, as is doing your own thing, as the only sure ways of obtaining true knowledge. Post-modernity also
emphasises the new global economy, and global culture that has emerged with the information technology age, and is perhaps a reaction against the gigantic monism, of a newly emerging western dominated world culture.

Post-modernism is very controversial, and yet has had a lot of success, in challenging and breaking down older ideas and practices. From the perspective of the ideational cycle, post-modernity is eclecticism par excellence. In this sense, it is not new, just a contemporary expression
of a cultural dynamic that periodically arises, to break down dominant, but static systems.

As the martial arts are a cultural system, and as they flourish in a global culture, rapidly becoming monistic, we should expect the compensating macro-dynamics, of culture as a whole, to show evidence of post-modernity within the martial arts themselves. And, if we look, that is exactly what we find.

Post-modernism was a cultural dynamic, tending towards eclecticism, long before anybody had given it, its name. Usually, names are given to movements, of any kind, only after they have become a real force. In the 1960’s as the cultural impetus of what was to become post-modernity, gathered pace, the first appearances of the post-modern
martial artist were made. This is not to imply that this was a conscious act on the part of any individual martial artist, rather that the Zeitgeist or ‘spirit of the age’ made their appearance, inevitable.

I’m sure that by now, many of you are thinking of the obvious representative of martial post-modernity: Bruce Lee. He is certainly the clearest and most influential example, and yet paradoxically, his influence has been made possible, mainly through the dynamics of the
mass-marketing of the world economy. Lee, was himself a student of philosophy at Washington University, but as far as I am aware, his primary philosophical influences were traditional, and post modernism per se had yet to be given final form. This makes him de facto a radical, and first generation post-modernist. There were others, particularly in the United States, but Lee is deservedly placed in the first rank.

What does the ideational cycle theory predict, for the development of Bruce Lee’s non-style of martial arts. We have seen that eclecticism, which includes post-modernity, is a chaotic dynamic , that breaks down older systems, but that it eventually becomes unstable, and develops
on through an integrative stage, and then back once again, into a new monism.

This allows a prediction to be made, namely that the conceptual non-style of Jeet-Kune-Do, will reach a point were it can reduce no further, and will then begin to conflict with its own inconsistencies. As a result, we should witness the formation of rival systems of Jeet-Kune-Do, perhaps with new names, some of which will be syncretisms, for example with older monistic styles, already influential in the background of some Jeet-Kune-Do practitioners. Some practitioners will return to the original concept, and practices, and despite their stated intention, will help to create a style, out of a non-style.

The rejection of the term ‘style’ is insufficient to claim that there is no style or system. In order to judge this objectively, the same criteria should be applied to Jeet-Kune-Do, as to any other system, without prejudice. Protestations that it is not a style could then be seen as a product of Jeet-Kune-Do sub-culture, rather than as an objective truth, in itself.

As time goes by, some of the syncretisms of Jeet-Kune-Do will almost certainly become new monistic styles in their own right. This process may take a number of generations, but there is no reason why it may not occur much sooner.
Put into the broader martial arts context, post-modern Jeet-Kune-Do eclecticism, acts as an ‘attractor’ or focal-point for other post-modern martial dynamics. The popularity of ‘free-style’ and of combined or openly eclectic systems, shows that the dissolution of older monisms’ still has much momentum.

How does all of this help martial artists understand their contemporaryculture, and, are we somehow forced to act out the dynamics of the evolving cycle, or, does this knowledge offer us a chance to be different?

Taking a ‘syncretistic’ or constructive attitude to the martial arts, as our starting point, we can utilise our awareness of the cycle, to manipulate its dynamics. Knowing that systems or styles of martial arts evolve, breakdown, combine and reform, gives us the opportunity to be active
agents, rather than passive participants, in the process of martial arts cultural evolution.

In psychotherapy, in order to break the unconscious hold the cycle has of therapists’ development, I proposed that the syncretistic phase should be combined with the dialectic that is a methodology originating in ancient Greek philosophy, but itself continuously developed ever since (5) & (10).

Essentially, the dialectic is a method of testing out the rationality of something, based on reasoning. Dialectical syncretism, allows psychotherapists’ to break free of rigid monisms; without falling victim to undisciplined eclecticism, and facilitates creativity systematically, by holding the tension between the twin tendencies of breaking down old
systems, and building up new ones.

In the martial arts it works like this: Firstly, the creative martial artist recognises that the dynamics of the cycle apply in his/her discipline, as much as in any other. Then a decision is made to utilise this knowledge to give the martial artist a perspective that transcends both the culture, and
the times, within which they live. This is no mean feat, as it actually requires an extraordinary increase in consciousness. The martial arts innovator then chooses one of two forms of dialectical syncretism, to
systemise their development, these are either weak variant dialectical syncretism, or strong variant dialectical syncretism (the terms weak and strong here borrowed from theoretical physics).

In its weak form, the martial artist starts out with a core system, it can be any style or system, so long as it is familiar and well integrated into the practitioners personality. This is the: core reference model the one against which all new learning experiences are compared, whether those experiences are theoretical, as in encountering new styles or techniques, or practical, as in the experience of real combat, and its effects. The new experiences are compared with those already held by the core model/ system, along the parallel lines of similarity versus difference.

If the new experience confirms the core model, then it is immediately synthesised, that is syncretised on the basis of an isomormphic, or one-to-one correspondence. In practice, the correspondence need only be ‘good enough’, as in for example the correspondence between the basic reverse punch found in Japanese Shotokan Karate, and in some
variants of Korean Tae-Kwon-Do. In other words, they are basically the same thing, just expressed in the different ‘language’ of the two styles.

However, where there is radical difference, say between Tibetan style hook-punches and a core system based upon Wing-Chun style centre-line punching, how do you decide if you update your core style, by incorporating the hooking techniques? Well, obviously, if you are a
rabid monist, its out of the question. If you are an eclectic, it couldn’t be simpler, just do it! If, however, you are going to be systematic about it, then you have to test out not only the technique(s), but also,
the implications for your system as a whole. This is where the dialectic comes in. In effect, you test out the rationality of the technique, and whether or not it fits in with your model as a whole. If so, your model or style grows by the incorporation. If it doesn’t fit, it may be better to
reject it, as your trained system may work more efficiently without the equivalent of an error, or computer virus, in its programme.

Alternatively, it may be that the core model needs radically updating, precisely because of the implications of the new techniques or other experience. In this way, error-correcting feedback, modifies and updates the form of the core style.

Therefore, if it is incorporated, this sets a precedent, and will form the basis for further systematic incorporations, as new experiences are encountered. This works well, because it actually mirrors the process of all natural human learning, wherein new experiences are compared and
contrasted with those already held in memory.

Strong variant dialectical syncretism, is much more difficult to employ, and may perhaps represent the ultimate in systematic, and creative, methodology. Here, the core style or system is continuously updated, by each new input or learning experience, again based on the principles of syncretism through isomorphic correspondence, and the rational dialectic, but at a much greater pace of change, and with no pretence of allegiance to an original core system, however updated or modified.

In this case, there is no monism, only a continuous process of growth and change. It is not eclectic, because it is cruelly rational and harshly systematic. In effect, it’s a dynamic process, of continuous integrationism and the fixing of the cycle, at the syncretistic phase.

The application of either of these forms of applied dialectical syncretism, offers the creative martial artist a chance to step outside of the confused post-modernism of our times, and to escape the solidifying tendencies of the older traditional monisms’. It will not be easy, as it requires the
development of thought, as well as of action, but it will be liberating, as much from eclecticism, as from traditionalsim.

The title of this paper, suggests an understanding of the anthropology and cultural evolution of martial arts systems. So far, we have developed a model suitable for grasping the evolutionary dynamics of the martial arts,
and utilising that model as a dialectical agency for their further growth: but are there any other strands of contemporary theory and research, that may suggest alternative or complementary dynamics?

Theories concerned with the development of ‘culture’ have a long history but, as outlined above, true cultural or anthropological studies of martial arts cultures, are exceedingly rare. Faced with this, a contemporary
researcher is forced to apply either non-specialist, and therefore more general academic methods, or, perhaps, to define an entirely new discipline.

The older methods, tend to be organised around either the humanities, or the so-called ‘social sciences’. Under the humanities would be placed studies of history, comparative religion, and of philosophy. The social sciences would include sociology, social psychology, and anthropology.

All of these have their merits, but suffer from a lack of specialism and crucially, may be antagonistic to one another, thereby failing to clarify either the macro-dynamics of culture as a whole, or, the specific micro-dynamics of martial arts sub-culture (sic!).

What is needed, is a system of academic analysis and research, that can unify the methods themselves, by placing the competing disciplines into a more global perspective on ideation itself.

Given, that dialectical syncretism can be applied to any ‘culture’ of competing ideational systems, I propose that it would be an ideal reference point, for the development of a new discipline, addressing the study of martial art anthropology. In this way, the creative dynamics of
the past can still be utilised, but without retrograde fragmentation, into mutually exclusive disciplines.

As a researcher in this field, I have found inspiration and challenging ideas coming from thinkers in biology, and in the psychology of the ‘unconscious’, so-called depth psychology. These thinkers have not been afraid to ‘trespass’ outside of their own fields of speciality, and as anthropological and cultural evolution of the martial arts, and, understanding the informational dynamics that power the system as a whole.

The first issue is addressed through dialectical syncretism. Space does not here permit an elaboration of the second, but essentially in this context, it concerns how ideas (including cultures) may be transmitted or otherwise developed. For example, there are various possible ways that styles or systems of martial arts may be culturally transmitted. Conventionally, it is by direct contact, say for example between India and China, or from China to Okinawa. The conventional explanations are well supported by ‘hard’ historical, anthropological and even archaeological evidence. However, this has been complemented, by some recent thinking in of all disciplines: biology. Professor Richard Dawkins, well known for his popular science works on genetics and evolution, has proposed the existence of cultural ‘genes’, which he terms

Memes’ are units of cultural inheritance, analogous to
biological genes’ and subject to the same laws of replication, selection and survival, within their own (cultural) environment (11).
In the context of the martial arts, examples of memes’ would include any expression of an idea or ideas’: such as ‘styles’; kata’s; rituals; philosophies, even specific techniques or drills. From Dawkins’ work, the clear implication is that once produced, memes’ develop a certain autonomy (in a cultural sense) away from their origins, and are free to
influence, or be influenced by other memes’. Their ultimate evolution and survival, mirroring the natural selection process, found in biological genetics.

An alternative explanation for the cultural transmission of ‘information’ is offered by another biologist, Rupert Sheldrake. Sheldrake’s ideas are complex and controversial, particularly from the more reductionistic viewpoint, typical of Richard Dawkins. Essentially for our purposes, Sheldrake is concerned with how established patterns of learning, in the
past, may affect abilities to learn in the present. This is not learning within an individual person over a given period of time, or learning by direct transmission from a teacher to a student. Rather, it is hypothesised that the more something has been studied, practised and learned, in the past, the easier it will be for contemporary people to re-learn, (more likely re-discover) the same thing, today, without direct cultural transmission. This approach utilises field, and information theories, to model apparently non-physical, cultural transmission of information. Known broadly as morphic resonance, Sheldrakes’ predictions for
the transmission of culture, even in animals such as birds, without physical contact between the bird populations in question, have given positive statistical results beyond chance. Other experimental work has continued and produced similar results, in human populations (12).

For the martial arts, morphic resonance offers an alternative hypothesis for explaining the similarity of some martial arts systems, kata’s and techniques, other than through direct physical contact. The mere fact of the existence of a system of martial art practice, should, according to this
viewpoint, make its future learning and/or re-emergence more likely.

The third contribution is made from depth psychology, or the psychology of the unconscious mind. This discipline is somewhat estranged from modern academic psychology, mainly for historical reasons, but also because its subject matter requires a multi-disciplinary knowledge base,
beyond the scope of most university psychology departments.

My own view is that the application of depth psychology to the martial arts, is one of the greatest potential benefits the West has to offer, particularly in acting as a matrix for synthesis between East and West.

However, for our purposes we should consider what depth psychology can suggest about the evolution of martial arts cultures.

The work of the depth psychologist Carl Gustav Jung, was the first to propose the structure and dynamics of a collective layer of the humanpsyche (13).

Jung held, that at its deepest levels, the human mind loses its individual cast, and becomes universal in content,
regardless of such factors as: race; religion; or even historical time period. The evidence for this was to be found in the universality of symbols and motifs’ found in the spontaneous products of all cultures, namely religions,
mythologies, and the transitional rites of passage through the stages of life-span development. Significantly, Jung found the natural and spontaneous generation of these same images and representations, in such phenomena as dreams, the occult, and mental illness.

Jung went on to suggest that the wellspring for these images and cultural systems, was innate, hard wired into the human brain, and inherited genetically.

In the context of the martial arts, this would mean that the tendency to form ritualised combative systems, connected with other aspects of culture, such as religion, should arise naturally, as complementary expressions of deeper, linking factors. These factors Jung named as archetypes meaning original impressions or forms. In other words, the archaic aspect of the human psyche, as formed perhaps millions of
years ago, is still in us today, located structurally in the evolutionary older parts of the brain. Linked with instinct, and communicated to our modern consciousness through symbol and ritual. Issues of survival (self-defence in its broadest context) are associated with systems of
understanding of the world (ritual, religion, philosophy etc.) to form what we understand and recognise today as the martial arts.

It would be quite wrong to think that this process as unique to the East. In the West, we too have had our warrior and religious orders, for example the Knights Templar, and the medieval chivalric code. Now, at the end of the twentieth century, with its own cultural links to indigenous martial culture overridden or lost, the West has turned East
to fill the void out of imperative necessity. Where the transcription of Eastern methods into the West has successfully occurred, it has done so in spite of apparent differences between the cultures. According to a
Jungian perspective, this can only be because of a deeper symbolic correspondence between the two cultures, that actually transcends both the differences between the cultures themselves, and, the limitations of the
cultural vehicle that is, the system or style of martial art, in question.

Jung held that cultures actually disguise rather than reveal deeper structure similarities. This is paralleled in the work of the linguist, Noam Chomsky, who proposed a universal human grammar, as a basis for the learning of all languages, however different they may appear to be. A universal language acquisition device (LAD) is inherited, as a template
for the cultural transmission of a specific language. Therefore, the human brain is prepared to learn language, any language a-priori.

Chomsky also proposed an analytical system known as ‘transformational grammar’ which examines the different ways language can be used to communicate the same underlying meaning. The ‘surface structure’ of
two English language sentences may be entirely different, but, their ‘deep structure’ meaning can be the same (14).

In the same way, two apparently dissimilar martial arts systems, can in fact be expressions of the same underlying or deeper (archetypal) structure.

Dialectical syncretism is able to accommodate all of these differing contributions by applying the self-same methodology, that is applied to the actual practice of the martial arts. Therefore, alternative or complementary approaches can be synthesised, leading perhaps, towards the development of a new discipline of martial art anthropology. In this
way academic theory and physical practice become conjoined: rather like the opposite sides of the same coin; you couldn’t have the one, without also having the other.

In conclusion, we have placed the study of the evolution of martial arts systems, within the broader cultural context of history, and of our own times. We have offered a methodology by which creative martial artists
can develop beyond the limitations of the past, without falling victim to post-modern negation. Further, we have seen how this same methodology may be used to lay the foundations of a new discipline of
martial arts anthropology, syncretising older monistic forms of academic research to create an evolving and dynamic system.

© 1998 Steven T. Richards FSMA MIPSA BRCP (Psych).
Consultant psychotherapist & psychophysiologist to the NHS and in private practice.
Consultant to the British Council of Complementary Medicine (Psychotherapy Division).
Fellow of the Society of Martial Arts (FSMA)
Recognised Instructor: British Council for Chinese Martial Arts Sports Council Governing Body.
Life Member Chin-Woo Athletic Assoc. Hong-Kong.
Biographee: Who’s Who in America (World, Science, and Medicine editions).


(1). (Draeger 1972) Weapons and fighting arts of the Indonesian archipelago. Donn F. Draeger Tuttle. Tokyo Japan. pp 30-31.

(2). (Hinnels 1984) The penguin dictionary of religions. John R.Hinnels (ed.) Penguin Group London pp 317-318.

(3). (Richards 1996) Who’s Who in America (13th World edition) 1996. Biographical record. Marquis New Providence N. J. USA. P 1115.

(4). (Richards 199 8) Who’s Who in America (4th Science and 2nd Medicine editions) 1998-1999-2000. Biographical record.Marquis New Providence N. J. USA. p 971.

(5). (Richards 1995) Dialectical syncretism and occupational therapy. British Journal of occupational therapy Vol. 58 (4) April 1995 pp 161-162.

(6). (Richards 1995a) An outline of psycho-systems analysis psychotherapy and dialectical syncretic philosophy. (unpublished) thesis submission to the Institute for Complementary Medicine London (U.K.) October 1995.

(7). (Suzuki 1967) Karate-Do. Tatsuo Suzuki. Pelham Books. London. pp 11-16.

( 8).  (Sarup 1993) An introductory guide to post-structuralism and post-modernism 2nd edition. Madan Sarup. Harvester- Wheatsheaf. New-York London. 1993. pp 1-4 & 129-159.

(9). (Lyotard 1984) The post-modern condition: a report on knowledge, Jean-Francois Lyotard. Manchester University Press. Manchester. pp 20-24.

(10). (Bhaskhar 1993) Dialectic: the pulse of freedom. Roy Bhaskar.Verso London and New York. pp 1-4.

(11). (Dawkins 1976) The selfish gene. Richard Dawkins.
Oxford University Press. pp 206-207 & 212-214.

(12). (Sheldrake 198 8) The presence of the past. Rupert Sheldrake. New York: Collins. pp 223-238, 239-253, 375-376.

(13). (Jung 1916/1956) Symbols of transformation; Volume 5. Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Routledge and Kegan Paul. London pp 408 & 177n.

(14). (Chomsky 1985) Knowledge of language: its nature origin and use. Noam Chomsky. New York: Praeger pp 12-17, 32-38